May 16, 2013

The Methods of Psychology

Psychology, as all sciences do, follows strictly some procedures and methods to carry out its investigation. Under the two heads of Naturalistic and Controlled Observation there are a number of methods employed in Psychology Introspection, Developmental. Field Study are the methods of Naturalistic Observation whereas Experimental, Case History or Clinical, Survey, Biographical and Statistical are those of controlled observation.

Developmental Method:

This method is also called the Genetic Method. The method undertakes to trace back the whole development of the individual starting from the present given stage and going back far into the primitive past. In this method the psychologist attempts to obtain a complete record of gradual development of a phenomenon or the individual in view. In this the psychologist succeeds in reaching the simple beginning of a phenomenon going through complicated developmental stages from present to the past.

By following this method highly modified and developed forms of behaviour of human adults are traced back to the simple level of children and animals. That simple level is that of primitive, primary motives which is easily understood to find the origin of behaviour or the problem phenomenon. For this purpose the researcher lives with the primitive people for some time.

Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882), the renowned biologist diverted attention to the study of child development. lookup studying his own child for quite a long time in to find out as how emotions develop in child psychology as a highly reliable procedure of research. The scheme of study in child development underwent an utter change with Darwin’s approach. Now the method is employed in both ways i.e. in the case of given individual with some particular phenomenon it traces back the origin and in child development study it provides a day-to-day record.

This record is an authentic material for all practical purposes which enlightens on all stages of age, physic al maturation and learning. We can easily mark the changes in the child’s behaviour stage by stage. The Day - book Method is also used in child study which provides a full record of changes in the behaviour and development.

The Field Study Method:

Every discipline of science employs this time old research technique which is a form of naturalistic observation. This often used in the situations where experimentation is impossible. The field-study can be described as making direct observation of nature. The investigator, in this method, has to simply go into the relevant field with one or more definite questions and record observations. He is not required to hold the conditions constant or control in any way. He may not even try to have all of those conditions under which his subjects are operating.

The observer generally does not need the direct cooperation of the subjects. It is rather more useful that the subjects are not conscious or aware of being observed. Such studies rottenly prove more successful. In some other instances the investigator may seek cooperation of the concerned people without telling ‘hem the real purpose of the study. He finds it helpful to join the daily life of his subjects for some time in order to have a better, clearer understanding of their ways of living.

John S Lam is an IT Instructor at Examskey. He is 220-801 Certified Professional. Take the benefit of our 200-120 material and assure your success. Check out our free demo of all certifications Exams.
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